Anabolic Steroids: A Question of Muscle Michael Scally

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Anabolic Steroids: A Question of Muscle  by  Michael Scally

Anabolic Steroids: A Question of Muscle by Michael Scally
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ANABOLIC STEROIDS: A Question of Muscle: Human Subject Abuses in Anabolic Steroid Research - is a chronicle of current day human research abuses. Clinical application of published study results is dependent upon sound research design.MoreANABOLIC STEROIDS: A Question of Muscle: Human Subject Abuses in Anabolic Steroid Research - is a chronicle of current day human research abuses. Clinical application of published study results is dependent upon sound research design. Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) research focuses only on the period of AAS administration while dismissing and ignoring the period after AAS cessation that directly affect the validity of their conclusions, adverse body composition changes.

The research design of these studies does not take into consideration that AAS use causes a disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, resulting in a state of anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism (ASIH) that after AAS cessation continues for an unknown duration and severity.

Critically, the period of hypogonadism exposes the subjects to the known adverse risks of hypogonadism. Significantly, the problem of anabolic-androgen steroid induced hypogonadism presents an opportunity. Solutions to this disorder are important and are found within the book.The anabolic steroid research present within the book conclude that anabolic steroid administration results in increases in muscle mass and muscle strength in many chronic diseases where there is an associated loss of muscle mass and muscle strength.

Based on these conclusions, the physician-investigators recommend their use as a possible means of decreasing morbidity and mortality. However, these studies fail to consider the period after anabolic steroid cessation, a period where there is loss of the muscle mass and muscle strength gains during anabolic steroid administration.

In one-hundred percent of the published studies, a period of hypogonadism ensues after anabolic steroid cessation. Despite the published literature findings, these studies do not include this period after anabolic steroid cessation, a period that if included would have negate effects and probably eliminate their study conclusions.Most horrific and disturbing is these individuals with chronic diseases will now have exposure to a comorbid condition, hypogonadism, which will adversely affect their health and welfare. Moreover, the medical community has steadfastly refused to recognize the peer-reviewed literature on anabolic-androgenic steroids, holding that hypogonadism after stopping prescription anabolic-androgenic steroids is of no medical consequence.Chapter 1, Testosterone & Anabolic Steroids, provides a background on testosterone and related analogues, anabolic steroids.

Chapter 2, Hypothalamic Pituitary Testicular Axis (HPTA), describes the homeostatic mechanisms in the control and regulation of testosterone levels. A disruption of homeostasis results in disease, specifically hypogonadism, Anabolic Steroid Induced Hypogonadism (ASIH), Chapter 3. Chapter 4, Henry K. Beecher Revisited, forty plus years later since publication of Beechers report on ethical research abuses, one might expect that ethical violations would be rare, that physician-researchers would adhere to the highest of ethical standards, the Nuremberg Code principles would be the commonplace guidepost, and an individuals health and welfare is of the utmost priority.

Sadly, the polar opposite is the case. Vulnerable populations exposed to AAS administration with no consideration for the period after AAS cessation include Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Chapter 5- Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Chapter 6- Chronic Kidney Disease: Hemodialysis, Chapter 7- Osteoporosis & Glucocorticoids, Chapter 8, and Sarcopenia, Chapter 9. Chapter 10, Doublethink, reveals the governmental ignorance, institutional complicity, and investigator doublethink in defense of unsound research design, unsound research methodology, and improper informed consent.

Chapter 11, Solutions, describes possible treatments to the medical problem anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism (ASIH).



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